Antivirus software

Antivirus software

Antivirus software is used to prevent, detect, and remove malware. A variety of strategies are typically employed.

Signature-based detection involves searching for known malicious patterns in executable code. It is the most common method. To identify viruses and other malware, antivirus software compares the contents of a file to a dictionary of virus signatures. Because new viruses are being created each day, the signature-based detection approach requires frequent updates of the virus signature dictionary. Traditionally, antivirus software heavily relied upon signatures to identify malware. This can be very effective, but is not effective against new, unknown viruses.

To counter such so-called zero-day threats, heuristics can be used. One type of heuristic approach, generic signatures, can identify new viruses by looking for known malicious code in files.

File emulation is another heuristic approach. It involves executing a program in a virtual environment and logging what actions the program performs. The antivirus software can determine if the program is malicious or not and then carry out the appropriate disinfection actions.

Traditional antivirus software solutions run virus scanners on schedule, on demand and some run scans in real time. If a virus or malware is located the suspect file is usually placed into a quarantine to terminate its chances of disrupting the system. Installed antivirus software running on an individual computer is only one method of guarding against viruses. Other methods are also used, including firewalls and on-line scanners.

Network firewalls prevent unknown programs and Internet processes from accessing the system protected. They may protect against infection from outside the protected computer or LAN, and limit the activity of any malicious software by blocking incoming or outgoing requests on certain TCP/IP ports.

Some antivirus vendors maintain websites with free online scanning capability of the entire computer, critical areas only, local disks, folders or files. Examples include Kaspersky Online Scanner and ESET Online Scanner. Some other online sites provide only scanning of files uploaded by users.

Antivirus software can sometimes have drawbacks. Antivirus software can degrade computer performance. An incorrect user’s decision may lead to a security breach. If the antivirus software employs heuristic detection, success depends on achieving the right balance between false positives and false negatives.

Running multiple antivirus programs concurrently can degrade performance and create conflicts. It is sometimes necessary to temporarily disable virus protection when installing major updates such as Windows Service Packs or updating graphics card drivers.

Words and word combinations:

1) pattern – шаблон, форма, модель, система 2) to identify – идентифицировать, распознавать/розпізнавати; Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) – НЛО 3) approach – подход heuristic approach – эвристический подход 4) to rely upon/on – полагаться, надеяться/надіятися 5) schedule – расписание, график/розклад 6) to terminate – завершать, ограничивать/завершувати, обмежувати 7) to disrupt – разрушать/руйнувати 8) request – просьба, требование, запрос/запит incoming request – входящий запрос outgoing request – исходящий запроc 9) folder – папка/тека 10) drawback – недостаток/недолік 11) to degrade – снижать, уменьшать/зменшувати to upgrade – модернизировать 12) concurrently – одновременно/одночасно

I Find the equivalents in the text:

1) исполняемый код 2) обнаружение по сигнатуре 3) угроза «нулевого дня» 4) известный вредоносный код 5) виртуальная среда 6) метод защиты 7) сетевой экран 8) производители антивирусного ПО 9) файлы, присланные/загруженные пользователями 10) нарушения безопасности 11) временно отключить ● 1) виконуваний код 2) виявлення по сигнатурі 3) загроза «нульового дня» 4) відомий шкідливий код 5) віртуальне середовище 6) метод захисту 7) мережевий екран 8) виробники антивірусного ПЗ 9) файли, прислані, завантажені користувачами 10) порушення безпеки 11) тимчасово відключити

II Are the following statements true or false:

1) Antivirus programs using signature-based detection require frequent updates. 2) It is possible to use signature-based detection for identifying new viruses. 3) Executing a program in a virtual environment is file emulation. 4) Installed antivirus software is the only method of guarding the system. 5) Network firewalls can block access to Internet. 6) Some antivirus vendors provide scanning of files uploaded by users7) Antivirus software has no drawbacks. 8) Antivirus program can place a suspect file into quarantine. 9) There’s no need to disable virus protection when installing system updates. 10) You should install several antivirus programs and run them simultaneously to have totally protected system.

III Turn the sentences into the Passive Voice and translate them:

1) We use antivirus software to detect and remove malware. 2) KIS will compare the content of the file to the dictionary of virus signatures. 3) The program logged all actions of the suspect file. 4) Our system administrator is limiting access to Internet resources. 5) Running two antivirus programs has created conflicts.

IV Make questions to the underlined words and translate them:

1) Antivirus software relied upon signatures to identify malware. 2) Any suspect file is placed into quarantine. 3) An incorrect user’s decision will cause a security breach. 4) Some antivirus vendors are maintaining websites with free online scanning capabilities. 5) Success in heuristic detection depends on the right balance between false positives and false negatives.

V Fill the gaps and translate the sentences:

Antivirus software is used to prevent, detect and remove ___ .To identify viruses, ___ compare the contents of a suspect file with a dictionary of virus signatures. This ___ require frequent updates. This strategy is not ___ against new, unknown viruses. To counter them, ___ can be used. It means executing a program in a ___ and logging what actions the program performs. If a virus is located, the ___ is placed into quarantine to terminate its chances of disrupting the system. ___ prevent unknown programs from accessing the system and protect against infection from Internet or local network. They can limit the activity of any program by blocking ___ on certain ports. Antivirus software has ___ , it degrade computer performance and create conflicts.

1) virtual environment 2) drawbacks 3) antivirus programs 4) malicious software 5) network firewalls 6) suspect file 7) file emulation 8) incoming and outgoing requests 9) effective 10) signature-based detection

VI Give the full name of the shortenings and explain the meaning:

OCR; P&P


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